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習近平主席在黨的十八屆五中全會第二次全體會議上的講話(中英對照)

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Recognizing the situation during the decisive push to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects

深刻認識全面建成小康社會決勝階段的形勢
Building a moderately prosperous society in all respects by the year 2020 represents a solemn promise that our Party has made to the Chinese people and to history. The period of the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) overlaps with the deadline we have set for the attainment of this goal, which means that the 13th Five-Year Plan will be the last five-year plan in the push to realize the moderately prosperous society. The tasks of the Party and government over the coming five years therefore boil down to one thing: clinching the final victory in the decisive push to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and realizing the first of our "Two Centenary Goals."
到2020年全面建成小康社會,是我們黨向人民、向歷史作出的莊嚴承諾。"十三五"時期與實現全面建成小康社會奮鬥目標的時間節點高度契合,"十三五"規劃是全面建成小康社會收官的規劃。今後5年黨和國家各項任務,歸結起來就是奪取全面建成小康社會決勝階段的偉大勝利,實現第一個百年奮鬥目標。
In the early stages of the reform and opening up drive, Deng Xiaoping first used the term "moderate prosperity" to describe Chinese-style modernization, introducing the goal of "establishing a moderately prosperous society in China" by the end of the 20th century. Thanks to the combined efforts of the whole Party and all Chinese people, this goal was attained on schedule at the end of the last century. The Chinese people had on the whole attained a moderately prosperous standard of living. Building on this foundation, the Sixteenth National Congress of the CPC in 2002 introduced the goal of comprehensively building a moderately prosperous society of a higher level for the benefit of more than one billion people in the first 20 years of this century. Since then, with a firm grasp on this goal, our Party has surged forward in relay fashion, making remarkable progress in pursuit of an all-round moderately prosperous society.
改革開放之初,鄧小平同志首先用小康來詮釋中國式現代化,明確提出到20世紀末"在中國建立一個小康社會"的奮鬥目標。在全黨全國各族人民共同努力下,這個目標在上世紀末如期實現,人民生活總體上達到小康水平。在這個基礎上,黨的十六大提出本世紀頭20年全面建設惠及十幾億人口的更高水平的小康社會的奮鬥目標。黨的十六大以來,我們黨扭住這個奮鬥目標,一茬接着一茬幹,一棒接着一棒跑,全面建設小康社會取得了顯著成績。
Now, with the finishing line in sight, it is time to make one final push in this journey that will traverse the first 20 years of this century. Completing this strategic task is both our historical responsibility and our greatest honor. We must be soberly aware that while we have what it takes to attain the goal of comprehensive moderate prosperity on schedule, the task we face is still enormous and the road ahead will not be easy going. As various problems overlap and risks mount, we are still facing grave and complex challenges. If we fail to respond to these challenges properly, or if we encounter systemic risks or commit disastrous errors, then the process of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects will be delayed, and could even cease entirely. Therefore, the entire Party must be fully prepared for what lies ahead, not just mentally but also in our work. We must recognize the situation, strengthen our confidence, and continue to work with strong determination.
現在,這個時跨本世紀頭20年的奮鬥歷程到了需要一鼓作氣向終點線衝刺的歷史時刻。完成這一戰略任務,是我們的歷史責任,也是我們的最大光榮。我們必須清醒看到,如期全面建成小康社會,既具有充分條件,也面臨艱鉅任務,前進道路並不平坦,諸多矛盾疊加、風險隱患增多的挑戰依然嚴峻複雜。如果應對不好,或者發生系統性風險、犯顛覆性錯誤,就會延誤甚至中斷全面建成小康社會進程。對此,全黨同志必須做好充分的思想準備和工作準備,認清形勢,堅定信心,繼續頑強奮鬥。
There is no use in knowing how to act if we do not understand our present situation. Despite the profound and complex shifts that have taken place in both international and domestic environments, our assessment that China is in the midst of an important period of strategic opportunity for development still stands. Internationally speaking, the current political and economic situation is on the whole conducive to preserving the overall trend of world peace and development. The world economy is making a difficult recovery amidst deep adjustments, the global governance system is undergoing profound changes, and the world balance of power is becoming increasingly equitable. These factors have created a relatively stable external environment for China's development. Domestically speaking, our considerable material foundations, abundant human resources, vast markets, and enormous potential for development all indicate that our economic fundamentals remain favorable for long-term growth. Though we have experiencedan unavoidable change of gear in economic growth upon entering a new normal of economic development, it should be noted that the transformation of our growth model is gaining momentum, the structure of the economy is constantly improving, new growth drivers are replacing old ones, and reform and opening up is unleashing new impetus for development. All this suggests that the sound trend of economic development we are currently seeing can be sustained.
"知其事而不度其時則敗"。儘管國際國內環境發生了深刻複雜變化,但我國發展重要戰略機遇期的重大判斷沒有改變。從國際看,世界政治經濟形勢總體上有利於維護世界和平與發展大局,世界經濟在深度調整中曲折復甦,全球治理體系深刻變革,國際力量對比趨向平衡,我國發展具有相對穩定的外部環境。從國內看,我國物質基礎雄厚、人力資本豐富、市場空間廣闊、發展潛力巨大,經濟長期向好基本面沒有改變。經濟發展進入新常態,在增長速度不可避免換擋的同時,經濟發展方式加快轉變,經濟結構不斷優化,發展動力持續轉換,改革開放釋放出新的發展活力,良好發展態勢可以保持。
Building on the targets and requirements set forth at the Sixteenth National Congress of the CPC, and in view of new situations and developments, the Recommendations for the 13th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development (hereinafter referred to as the Recommendations) have set forth new goals for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects over the coming five years. These targets and requirements, together with those introduced at the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth national congresses of the CPC in 2002, 2007, and 2012 respectively, constitute a pledge we have made to the people. We must do everything in our power to see that they are realized. As these tasks and requirements have already been covered in the Recommendations, what I would like to talk about here is how to take control of and advance these initiatives.
《建議》在黨的十六大以來確定的全面建成小康社會目標要求的基礎上,根據新形勢新情況,提出了今後5年全面建成小康社會新的目標要求。這些新的目標要求,連同黨的十六大、十七大、十八大提出的目標要求,是我們對人民立下的軍令狀,必須全力以赴去實現。關於新的目標要求,《建議》講得很清楚了,我想談談如何準確把握和紮實推進問題。
The targets and requirements laid out in the Recommendations are directed towards the entire country, but that does not mean they can be applied uniformly to all localities. For example, to achieve the goals of doubling China's 2010 GDP and per capita personal income by 2020, we will need to sustain an average economic growth rate of 6.5% and raise the per capita disposable incomes of urban and rural residents by at least 5.8% per year for the duration of the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020), which in effect means synchronizing the growth of the economy with the growth of incomes. Apparently, it is not possible for all parts of the country to sustain this rate of growth. A more realistic scenario is that some areas will see higher growth while others will see lower growth. For certain central and western regions, old revolutionary base areas, ethnic minority areas, border areas, and impoverished areas, and particularly agricultural production zones and key ecosystem service zones, our primary goals in these areas will be guaranteeing national food security and ecological security, and achieving notable progress in various social programs, seeking in particular to raise standards of living and improve public services by a notable margin. We must guarantee the basic needs of those living in poverty and ensure that they have adequate access to education, medical care, and housing, whilst working to raise their incomes above the poverty line. It is not the case that GDP per capita and income per capita in all areas throughout the country must reach the national average before moderate prosperity across the board can be achieved.
《建議》提出的目標要求是對全國的要求,各地不可能整齊劃一。比如,"兩個翻番"意味着"十三五"時期全國年均經濟增長要保持在6.5%以上,全國城鄉居民人均可支配收入年均增長5.8%以上,力爭發展和居民收入增長同步,但各地不可能都保持這樣的速度,有些高一點、有些低一點才符合實際。對一些中西部地區,對一些革命老區、民族地區、邊疆地區、貧困地區,特別農產品主產區、重點生態功能區,主要目標是保障國家糧食安全、保障國家生態安全的主體功能要得到加強,各項事業有明顯進步,特別是人民生活、公共服務水平有明顯提高。對貧困人口而言,要實現"兩不愁、三保障",收入達到脱貧標準。不是説各地人均國內生產總值、人均收入等都要達到全國平均水平才是實現了全面小康。
What must be stressed is that to bring about a moderately prosperous society in all respects is not simply another all-out effort to make quick progress. We cannot realize the goal of doubling GDP and income per capita by relying on an extensive mode of development or by turning to strong stimulus measures to boost the pace of growth. That would only take us back down the same old road and create new conflicts and problems. As we are working to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects, we also need to afford consideration to more long-term development and accelerate our efforts to create a mode of economic development that is suited to the new normal. Only in this way will we be able to build a moderately prosperous society of high quality and lay down a stronger foundation for realizing the second of our "Two Centenary Goals."
特別要強調的是,進入全面建成小康社會決勝階段,不是新一輪大幹快上,不能靠粗放型發展方式、靠強力刺激抬高速度實現"兩個翻番",否則勢必走到老路上去,那將會帶來新的矛盾和問題。我們不僅要全面建成小康社會,而且要考慮更長遠時期的發展要求,加快形成適應經濟發展新常態的經濟發展方式。這樣,才能建成高質量的小康社會,才能為實現第二個百年奮鬥目標奠定更為牢靠的基礎。
Steering the way with new principles of development
以新的發展理念引領發展
Principles are precursors to actions. All actions in development are guided by principles of development, and it is these principles that ultimately determine the effectiveness of development and its success or failure. Experience tells us that development is a process of constant change, and that the environments and conditions in which development takes place are equally subject to change. Therefore, it is only natural that principles of development should also be subject to change.
理念是行動的先導,一定的發展實踐都是由一定的發展理念來引領的。發展理念是否對頭,從根本上決定着發展成效乃至成敗。實踐告訴我們,發展是一個不斷變化的進程,發展環境不會一成不變,發展條件不會一成不變,發展理念自然也不會一成不變。
When we started drafting the Recommendations, I stressed the need to begin by clarifying the principles of development that we were going to establish. Strategic in nature, principles of development represent a program that provides guidance, and a concrete manifestation of the approach, direction, and focus of development. Once the right principles have been set, it becomes easy to define targets and tasks. Policies and measures can then be set accordingly. In the Recommendations, we have introduced the principles of innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development. These principles have not simply been conjured up; rather, they have been formed on the basis of deep reflection on the experiences and lessons of development in China and abroad, and on the basis of a penetrating analysis of major development trends both domestically and internationally. They reflect our Party's deepened understanding of the underlying laws that govern economic and social development, and have been introduced in view of pronounced problems in our country's development.
我在《建議》開始起草時就強調,首先要把應該樹立什麼樣的發展理念搞清楚,發展理念是戰略性、綱領性、引領性的東西,是發展思路、發展方向、發展着力點的集中體現。發展理念搞對了,目標任務就好定了,政策舉措跟着也就好定了。《建議》提出要堅持創新、協調、綠色、開放、共享的發展理念。這五大發展理念不是憑空得來的,是我們在深刻總結國內外發展經驗教訓的基礎上形成的,也是在深刻分析國內外發展大勢的基礎上形成的,集中反映了我們黨對經濟社會發展規律認識的深化,也是針對我國發展中的突出矛盾和問題提出來的。
The focus of innovative development is to address the issue of growth drivers. China lacks an adequate capacity for innovation. Our overall level of scientific and technological development is not high, the support that science and technology provide for economic and social development is insufficient, and the contribution of science and technology to economic growth is much lower than that of developed countries. This is the "Achilles heel" of China's huge economy. As a new technological revolution progresses, competition in science and technology is becoming increasingly intense. Without raising our capacity for innovation, it will be impossible for us to switch to new drivers of economic growth, and we will be at a disadvantage in global economic competition. For this reason, it is essential that we identify innovation as the primary driving force for development; regard talent as the number one resource underpinning development; and place innovation at the very heart of China's development. Innovationshould be promoted in every field, from theory to institutions, and from science and technology to culture. It should permeate the entire work of the Party and government, and become an inherent part of our society.
創新發展注重的是解決發展動力問題。我國創新能力不強,科技發展水平總體不高,科技對經濟社會發展的支撐能力不足,科技對經濟增長的貢獻率遠低於發達國家水平,這是我國這個經濟大個頭的"阿喀琉斯之踵"。新一輪科技革命帶來的是更加激烈的科技競爭,如果科技創新搞不上去,發展動力就不可能實現轉換,我們在全球經濟競爭中就會處於下風。為此,我們必須把創新作為引領發展的第一動力,把人才作為支撐發展的第一資源,把創新擺在國家發展全局的核心位置,不斷推進理論創新、制度創新、科技創新、文化創新等各方面創新,讓創新貫穿黨和國家一切工作,讓創新在全社會蔚然成風。
The focus of coordinated development is to address the issue of unbalanced development, which has long been a problem for China. Imbalances are most pronounced between different regions, between urban and rural areas, between economic and social development, between the material and the non-material, and between economic development and national defense. When our level of economic development lagged behind, our main task was to develop at a rapid pace. But having developed rapidly for a period of time, we now need to direct our attention to the rebalancing of relationships and to the overall effectiveness of development, otherwise the "law of the minimum" will become increasingly apparent and social problems will only worsen. For this reason, with a keen awareness of the overall plan for the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics, it is essential that we properly balance major relationships in development and work constantly to make development more rounded.
協調發展注重的是解決發展不平衡問題。我國發展不協調是一個長期存在的問題,突出表現在區域、城鄉、經濟和社會、物質文明和精神文明、經濟建設和國防建設等關係上。在經濟發展水平落後的情況下,一段時間的主要任務是要跑得快,但跑過一定路程後,就要注意調整關係,注重發展的整體效能,否則"木桶"效應就會愈加顯現,一系列社會矛盾會不斷加深。為此,我們必須牢牢把握中國特色社會主義事業總體佈局,正確處理發展中的重大關係,不斷增強發展整體性。
The focus of green development is to address the issue of harmony between humankind and nature. Green, circular, and low-carbon development represents the trend of the current technological revolution, and the direction in which industry is shifting. With unparalleled future prospects and considerable potential for development in China, green, circular, and low-carbon development will help us to create a number of new growth points. China currently faces grave problems in the form of tightening resource constraints, serious environmental pollution, and ecological degradation, and the public's demand for fresh air, clean drinking water, safe food, and beautiful environments is becoming increasingly strong. For this reason, it is essential that we uphold the fundamental national policy of conserving resources and protecting the environment; pursue a civilized path of development that consists of developed industry, affluent standards of living, and fine natural environments; and accelerate the establishment ofa resource-conserving, environmentally friendly society, with a view to building a beautiful China and contributing further to the protection of global environmental security.
綠色發展注重的是解決人與自然和諧問題。綠色循環低碳發展,是當今時代科技革命和產業變革的方向,是最有前途的發展領域,我國在這方面的潛力相當大,可以形成很多新的經濟增長點。我國資源約束趨緊、環境污染嚴重、生態系統退化的問題十分嚴峻,人民羣眾對清新空氣、乾淨飲水、安全食品、優美環境的要求越來越強烈。為此,我們必須堅持節約資源和保護環境的基本國策,堅定走生產發展、生活富裕、生態良好的文明發展道路,加快建設資源節約型、環境友好型社會,推進美麗中國建設,為全球生態安全作出新貢獻。
The focus of open development is to address the issue of internal and external coordination in development. As international economic cooperation and competition undergo profound changes, major shifts are expected to occur in the system and rules of global economic governance. The depth, breadth, and pace of China's "bringing in" and "going global" efforts are now greater than they have ever been, as is the pressure that the country is coming under to address external economic risks and safeguard national economic security. The question now is not whether or not to open up, but rather how we can raise the quality of opening up and the coordination of internal and external development. China's overall level of openness is not yet high enough. We still lack sufficient capacity to leverage international and domestic markets and resources, to respond to international economic and trade friction and make our voice heard in international economic discourse, and to use international economic and trade rules toour advantage. These shortcomings need to be shored up as soon as possible. For this reason, it is essential that we uphold the fundamental national policy of opening up; pursue a mutually beneficial opening up strategy; deepen people-to-people exchanges; improve the regional layout of our opening up as well as the layout of trade and investment; establish a new framework for opening up; develop an open economy of a higher level; and use opening up as a means of promoting innovation, reform, and development. The Belt and Road Initiative represents a major strategic initiative for expanding China's opening up and the top-level design for economic diplomacy. In carrying out this initiative, we need to locate breakthrough points, identify successful experiences and apply them to broader areas, and take steady steps forward with strong determination. We need to promote the reform and improvement of the system of global economic governance, steer the global economic agenda, uphold the multilateral trade system, accelerate the implementation of a free trade zone strategy, and actively assume the international responsibilities and obligations in accordance with China's capacity and status.
開放發展注重的是解決發展內外聯動問題。國際經濟合作和競爭局面正在發生深刻變化,全球經濟治理體系和規則正在面臨重大調整,引進來、走出去在深度、廣度、節奏上都是過去所不可比擬的,應對外部經濟風險、維護國家經濟安全的壓力也是過去所不能比擬的。現在的問題不是要不要對外開放,而是如何提高對外開放的質量和發展的內外聯動性。我國對外開放水平總體上還不夠高,用好國際國內兩個市場、兩種資源的能力還不夠強,應對國際經貿摩擦、爭取國際經濟話語權的能力還比較弱,運用國際經貿規則的本領也不夠強,需要加快彌補。為此,我們必須堅持對外開放的基本國策,奉行互利共贏的開放戰略,深化人文交流,完善對外開放區域佈局、對外貿易佈局、投資佈局,形成對外開放新體制,發展更高層次的開放型經濟,以擴大開放帶動創新、推動改革、促進發展。"一帶一路"建設是擴大開放的重大戰略舉措和經濟外交的頂層設計,要找準突破口,以點帶面、串點成線,步步為營、久久為功。要推動全球經濟治理體系改革完善,引導全球經濟議程,維護多邊貿易體制,加快實施自由貿易區戰略,積極承擔與我國能力和地位相適應的國際責任和義務。
The focus of shared development is to address the issue of social equity and justice. The ancients said, "To bring order to the land there must first be fairness. Where there is fairness there is order." Letting all people benefit from the fruits of reform and development is the essence of socialism. This not only reflects the superiority of the socialist system, it is also an important manifestation of our Party's wholehearted commitment to serving the people. If the issue of fairness can be properly addressed, the enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity of the people will be at our disposal. Only then can our country reach its maximum potential for development. Though China's economy is continuing to grow and the "pie" is getting bigger, inequality in the distribution of wealth is highly pronounced, and the urban-rural gap in incomes and public services is considerable. In terms of both actual conditions and institutional design, there is still much that needs to be improved in order to ensure that thefruits of reform and development can be shared by all people. For this reason, it is essential that we remain committed to the principle that development is for the people, reliant on the people, and that its fruits are shared by the people, and make more effective institutional arrangements to lead all people steadily towards common prosperity. Under no circumstances can we tolerate a situation in which the rich have everything and the poor have nothing.
共享發展注重的是解決社會公平正義問題。"治天下也,必先公,公則天下平矣。"讓廣大人民羣眾共享改革發展成果,是社會主義的本質要求,是社會主義制度優越性的集中體現,是我們黨堅持全心全意為人民服務根本宗旨的重要體現。這方面問題解決好了,全體人民推動發展的積極性、主動性、創造性就能充分調動起來,國家發展也才能具有最深厚的偉力。我國經濟發展的"蛋糕"不斷做大,但分配不公問題比較突出,收入差距、城鄉區域公共服務水平差距較大。在共享改革發展成果上,無論是實際情況還是制度設計,都還有不完善的地方。為此,我們必須堅持發展為了人民、發展依靠人民、發展成果由人民共享,作出更有效的制度安排,使全體人民朝着共同富裕方向穩步前進,絕不能出現"富者累鉅萬,而貧者食糟糠"的現象。
As this plenary session has emphasized, the introduction of the principles of innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development represents a profound change that will have a bearing on our country's overall development. Interconnected and mutually reinforcing, these five major principles form a whole that requires unified implementation. None of the principles can be emphasized over, or in place of, any of the others. If our implementation of any one of these principles falls short, our entire process of development will be adversely affected. This means that all Party members must raise their capacity to uniformly put these five principles of development into practice, in order to constantly open up new horizons for development.
這次全會強調,堅持創新發展、協調發展、綠色發展、開放發展、共享發展,是關係我國發展全局的一場深刻變革。這五大發展理念相互貫通、相互促進,是具有內在聯繫的集合體,要統一貫徹,不能顧此失彼,也不能相互替代。哪一個發展理念貫徹不到位,發展進程都會受到影響。全黨同志一定要提高統一貫徹五大發展理念的能力和水平,不斷開拓發展新境界。

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leverage ['li:vəridʒ]

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n. 槓桿(作用,力量),舉債經營 v. (使)舉債經營

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duration [dju'reiʃən]

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n. 持續時間,期間

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govern ['gʌvən]

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vt. 統治,支配,管理,規定
vi. 統治,

 
creativity [.kri:ei'tiviti]

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n. 創造力,創造

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issue ['iʃju:]

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n. 發行物,期刊號,爭論點
vi. & vt

 
enthusiasm [in'θju:ziæzəm]

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n. 熱情,熱心;熱衷的事物

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status ['steitəs]

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n. 地位,身份,情形,狀況

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affected [ə'fektid]

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adj. 受影響的,受感動的,受疾病侵襲的 adj. 做

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disadvantage [.disəd'væntidʒ]

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n. 不利,不利條件,損害,損失

 
inherent [in'hiərənt]

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adj. 內在的,固有的

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